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Brain Tumor

A Brain Tumor Occurs When Abnormal Cells Form Within The Brain. Brain Tumors Can Be Cancerous Or Non Cancerous. They Can Be Primary (Tumors That Form Within The Brain) Or Secondary (Tumors Which Have Spread From Elsewhere In The Body). Symptoms May Include Headache, Vomitings, Seizures, Problems In Vision, Weakness Of Any Part Of The Body, Decreased Hearing etc. Brain Tumors Are Common In All The Age Groups And No Age Is Exempt From It. The Various Modalities Used To Diagnose Brain Tumors Incluse Ctscans, Mri, Pet Ct etc. The Treatment Can Be With The Use Of Various Modalities That Include Medical, Surgical, Radiation Therapy And Chemotherapy. Advances In Surgical Prctices Have Made It Now Possible To Remove Some Ot These Tumors Through Endoscope And Also Through The Nose.

Hydrocephalus

It is a condition in which accumulation of CSF occurs in the brain. It can occur as a result of congenital defects in the brain, brain infections, brain tumors, brain hemorrhage etc. It can cause headache, vomitings, drowsiness, double vision or loss of vision, imbalance while walking, poormentation. It can be diagnosed with the help of CT scans and MRI of the brain. Its treatment is surcical either by VP shunt (fixed pressure or programmable) or by endoscopic third ventriculostomy.

Head Injury

Head injury is very common these days. This may result in fractures of the skull and bleeding inside the brain. Head injury can cause a lot of morbidity and mortality. Common causes include road traffic accidents, falls from height, assault etc. Treatment includes medicines and at times surgery.

Vascular Lesions

Aneurysms and AVMs are very common in the brain. They can present as brain hemorrhage. Angiography is the diagnostic modality of choice to detect these. Theymeed either clipping or coiling. AVMs at times may need gamma knife therapy.

Meningitis

Meningitis is an inflammation of meninges. The most common causes are bacterial, viral and fungal. This is common in children as well as adults. Some viral and bacterial meningitis are contagious. Its symptoms include fever, irritability, headache, drowsiness, lethargy, stiffness in the neck, sensitivity to bright light and in some cases skin rashes. This is diagnosed by CSF analysis and imaging techniques. The treatment includes injectable antibiotics, antiviral or antifungal medications depending on CSF findings and culture reports. One of the very important causes in India is tuberculosis. For this prolonged treatment is required.

Slip Disc

This is a common term used for prolapsed intervertebral disc. It is quite common in elderly, but because of changing life style it is becoming increasingly common in all age groups. The major causes include degenerative and traumatic. It can happen in cervical spine as commonly known as cervical spondylosis or in lumbar spine. It can cause neck pain, pain in the arms, tinglingsensations, numbness and loss of power in the arms or hands. Similarly it can cause backache, pain in the legs, tinglings and numbness in the legs, loss of power in the legs, difficulty in walking and at times bladder and bowel disturbances. Treatment can be medical (medicines, physiotherapy etc) or surgical.

It is very important to adopt right posture while sitting, working on computers, driving etc. Abnormal postures during these activities can lead to neck strain and backache which can hamper day to day activities.

Spinal Tumors

Spine consists of bony spine and the spinal cord. One can have tumors in the bony spine as well as in the spinal cord. These tumors can be primary as well as malignant. Tumors from other parts of body too can metestasise in the spine. Most of these tumors need surgical removal.

Spinal Injury

Spine can be damaged due to road traffic accidents and falls from height. This can lead to weakness and numbness of arms and legs, bladder and bowel problems. It needs surgical and medical management.

CNS Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis can affect many organs in the body including brain and spine. In brain it can cause meningitis, hydrocephalus and abscesses. The treatment includes medicines for TB and at times surgery. In spine it can cause tubercular osteomyelitis and even cause collapse of the vertebra which may cause spinal cord compression and hence decrease in power in arms and legs, numbness, bladder and bowel problems etc. Treatment incudes ATT and at times surgery.

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